Tarsila do Amaral (1886-1973)
María Izquierdo (1902-1955)
Izquierdo’s popularity amongst Mexico City’s artistic elite began to wane, however, in the 1940s, when Rivera and fellow muralist
Lygia Clark (1920–1988)
Lygia Clark was one of several artists in 1960s Brazil to pioneer interactive, immersive art—an attempt to break down the boundaries between art and life. Clark began her radical practice by exploring geometric abstraction during a time when realism was still the dominant motif in Rio de Janeiro. She gleaned early inspiration from European modernists like Paul Klee and Léger, but broke from their style by bringing the hard-edged forms of her paintings into three-dimensional space. Her canvases jutted out into the air, and she began making angular sculptures—her famous “Bichos (Critters)”—with the intention of being handled by viewers.
With fellow Rio de Janeiro-based artists Lygia Pape and Hélio Oiticica, Clark founded the
Lygia Pape (1927–2004)
Zilia Sánchez (b. 1928)